research, for example trait theories, focused on the leader and did not consider the role or characteristics of the subordinates. The characteristics of transactional and transformational leaders are not mutually exclusive and there may be occasions when a leader has to show transactional characteristics as well as transformational characteristics. All carried these qualities and more. Please contact This I Believe, Inc., regarding reprints and permissions requests. The characteristics of transformational leaders are important in an organisation because they are viewed as a more effective leadership style than transactional leadership for example. The concept of leaders having certain characteristics dominated research prior to the Second World War. Covey suggests that effective people are proactive, have a clarity regarding their life-goals, manage themselves, value and respect other people, are empathic and encourage positive teamwork (Covey, 2004,.65). It is argued that emotional intelligence is of benefit to leaders as it contributes to an awareness of their own emotions and how to regulate them as well as recognising emotions in others and having the social skills necessary to deal with other peoples emotions. It was thought that individuals could be selected for leadership positions if they showed the appropriate characteristics or alternatively that traits could be taught to leaders (Furnham, 2005,.571).
What Makes a Great Leader « Patricia This I Believe
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Essentials of Organisational Behaviour. Transactional leadership depends on contingency reinforcement which means the subordinate understands that a reward will be received when performance goals are achieved (Bass and Riggio, 2006,.8). Chio (2006,.36) reports that there can be very strong emotional bonds between a charismatic leader and their subordinates and in certain situations individuals may sacrifice themselves for the sake of the group to maintain harmonious relationships with others (Triandis, 1995, cited in Chio, 2006. This would appear to be relevant in contemporary society as employees are more empowered than they were in the past and are therefore less likely to blindly follow a leader. The findings indicated that common characteristics included an unshakable belief in their company and also a deep personal humility. It is further argued by Zaccaro (2007,.10) that because being a good leader is complex there is probably an interaction of the leaders characteristics as well as an interaction with the variables present in different situations and contexts.