from the study of plants with healing properties; similarly, from veterinary medicine and the pleasures of the hunt came zoology. In ancient China, three mythical emperors Fu Xi, Shennong, and Huangdi whose supposed ruling periods extended from the 29th to the 27th century bce, were said to possess medical knowledge. Among those who gave comparative studies their greatest impetus was Georges Cuvier, who utilized large collections of biological specimens sent to him from all over the world to work out a systematic organization of the animal kingdom. It also led directly to the convergence of many different scientific disciplines in order to acquire a better understanding of life processes. Because such matter in air reflects light when the air is illuminated under special conditions, Tyndalls apparatus could be used to indicate when air was pure.
Former New York Times, science, editor: Race, is Real
Marine Biological Laboratory, biological, discovery
Two hours can feel like a minute. At Crotone in southern Italy, where an important school of natural philosophy was established by Pythagoras about 500 bce, one of his students, Alcmaeon, investigated animal structure and described the difference between arteries and veins, discovered the optic nerve, and recognized the brain as the. Unity All living organisms, regardless of their uniqueness, have certain biological, chemical, and physical characteristics in common. In his own work, however, Harvey demonstrated that the heart expands passively and contracts actively. His two books on fishes reveal much about the state of systematics at the time, including that of not only fishes but also other aquatic creatures such as mammals, crustaceans, mollusks, and worms. In addition to establishing a connection between systematic and comparative anatomy, he believed that there was a correlation of parts according to which a given type of structure (e.g., feathers) is related to a certain anatomical formation (e.g., a wing which in turn is related. Although the Greek physician Hippocrates, who established a school of medicine on the Aegean island of Cos around 400 bce, was not an investigator in the sense of Alcmaeon, he did recognize through observations of patients the complex interrelationships involved in the human body. However, similar to Leeuwenhoek, Swammerdam confined his attention to microscopical studies.
Time began to feel less like the ticking clock, and more like the state of being. Erasistratus, a younger contemporary and reputed rival of Herophilus who also worked at the museum in Alexandria, studied the valves of the heart and the circulation of blood. It was those results, together with Pasteurs findings, that put an end to the doctrine of spontaneous generation. During the Beagle voyage, Darwin collected specimens of and accumulated copious notes on the plants and animals of South America and Australia, for which he received great acclaim on his return to England. Furthermore, while dissecting animals and examining their structure, Leonardo compared them with the structure of humans. In his LHistoire de la nature des oyseaux (1555; Natural History of Birds however, in which Belons taxonomy was remarkably similar to that used in the modern era, he showed a clear grasp of comparative anatomy, particularly of the skeleton, publishing the first picture.