travel guides were necessary during the Jim Crow era because African Americans were subject to acts of discrimination and occasional intimidation as many businesses refused to accept them as customers. . 10 The four men were rescued by Florida Highway Patrol officers. They seized Robert Hayling and three other naacp activists (Clyde Jenkins, James Jackson, and James Hauser and beat them with fists, chains, and clubs. The next year, in 1937, Green expanded listings to other locations. . 4, a sit-in protest on July 18, 1963, at the local. Augustine movement was a part of the wider. Civil Rights Movement in 19631964. 21 With his dental practice financially destitute after the loss of his white patients, and the safety of his wife and children uncertain, Robert Hayling decided to move. Augustine FL, Movement 1963". Augustine the stage for a moral drama enacted before a world audience. Civil Rights Movement Veterans.
Consistent threats and picketing by the Klan led many of the towns businesses to remain segregated. Contributor: Independent Historian, entry Categories). The guides format varied and early versions listed a variety of businesses such as hotels, tourist homes, restaurants, barber shops, beauty parlors, service stations, and taverns. . Augustine FL Movement 1964 Civil Rights Movement Veterans David. In the first week of June, a cottage that was scheduled to house the sclc president went up in flames. Johns County Sheriff.
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The Dark before Dawn: From Civil Wrongs to Civil Light. Augustine and in 1965 purchased a tract of land in Dade County, moving there in 1968. A Tallahassee native originally, Hayling served as an Air Force officer, and then became the first black dentist in Florida to be elected to the American Dental Association. 17 Death threats against the leadership were reaching a fever pitch, especially against. Mary Parkman Peabody, the 72-year-old mother of the governor of Massachusetts, was arrested in an integrated group at the Ponce de Leon Motor Lodge, north of town.